GH any positive uses?
and here is
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2004 Sep;287(3):F452-9.
Androgens augment proximal tubule transport.
Quan A, Chakravarty S, Chen JK, Chen JC, Loleh S, Saini N, Harris RC, Capdevila J, Quigley R.
Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390-9063, USA.
The proximal tubule contains an autonomous renin-angiotensin system that regulates transport independently of circulating angiotensin II. Androgens are known to increase expression of angiotensinogen, but the effect of androgens on proximal tubule transport is unknown. In this in vivo microperfusion study, we examined the effect of androgens on proximal tubule transport. The volume reabsorptive rate in Sprague-Dawley rats given dihydroTestosterone(DHT) injections was significantly higher than in control rats given vehicle injections (4.57 +/- 0.31 vs. 3.31 +/- 0.23 nl x min(-1) x mm(-1), P < 0.01). Luminally perfusing with either enalaprilat (10(-4) M) to inhibit production of angiotensin II or losartan (10(-8) M) to block the angiotensin receptor decreased the proximal tubule volume reabsorptive rate in DHT-treated rats to a significantly greater degree than in control vehicle-injected rats. The renal expression of angiotensinogen was shown to be higher in the DHT-treated animals, using Northern blot analysis. The expression of angiotensin receptors, determined by specific binding of angiotensin II, was not different in the two groups of animals. Brush-border membrane protein abundance of the Na/H exchanger, a membrane transport protein under angiotensin II regulation, was also higher in DHT-treated rats vs. control rats. Rats that received DHT had higher blood pressures than the control rats but had no change in their glomerular filtration rate. In addition, serum angiotensin II levels were lower in DHT-treated vs. control rats. These results suggest that androgens may directly upregulate the proximal tubule renin-angiotensin system, increase the volume reabsorptive rate, and thereby increase extracellular volume and blood pressure and secondarily decrease serum angiotensin II levels.
Pflugers Arch. 2005 Nov;451(2):388-94.
Expression of androgen receptor and androgen regulation of NDRG2 in the rat renal collecting duct.
Boulkroun S, Le Moellic C, Blot-Chabaud M, Farman N, Courtois-Coutry N.
INSERM U478, Institut Federatif de Recherche 02, Universite Paris 7, Faculte de Medecine Xavier Bichat, 16 rue Henri Huchard, BP 416, 75870 Paris Cedex 18, France.
Androgens are known to regulate gene expression in the renal proximal tubule. Whether the distal parts of the nephron, in particular the cortical collecting duct (CCD), where sodium reabsorption is controlled tightly by aldosterone, are also targets for these hormones is unknown. Real-time PCR on rat isolated renal tubules showed that androgen receptor mRNA is not only, as expected, expressed in the proximal tubule, but also in the CCD. We examined the effects of adrenalectomy (ADX) plus castration and in-vivo administration of the active metabolite of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), on the intrarenal expression of N-myc downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2), an early aldosterone-induced gene located specifically in the CCD. NDRG2 belongs to a newly identified family of differentiation-related genes; although the function of these genes remains elusive, regulation of NDRG1 by androgens has been suggested. Castration plus ADX increased NDRG2 expression (RNase protection assay) significantly in the whole kidney, and a single i.p. injection of DHT caused a significant decrease in NDRG2 expression 4 h afterwards (up to 24 h). Furthermore, real-time PCR on microdissected tubules revealed that the decrease in NDRG2 expression caused by DHT is restricted to the CCD. Thus, aldosterone and androgens have opposite effects on NDRG2 expression in the renal CCD. These results are the first demonstration of androgen-dependent gene regulation in the rat renal CCD.
Hypertension. 2005 Oct;46(4):787-98.
Androgen receptor-mediated regulation of the alpha-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel in human kidney.
Quinkler M, Bujalska IJ, Kaur K, Onyimba CU, Buhner S, Allolio B, Hughes SV, Hewison M, Stewart PM.
Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK.
Rodents studies suggest that androgens are involved in sex-specific differences in blood pressure. In humans, there is no difference in blood pressure between boys and girls, but after puberty, blood pressure increases more in men than in women. We investigated androgen-dependent regulation of the alpha-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (alphaEnaC) in human kidney and in the human renal cell line immortalized human renal proximal tubular cell line (HKC-8). We used microarray technique to analyze androgen-dependent gene regulation and performed quantitative RT-PCR for verification. Promoter constructs for human alphaENaC were used in transfection studies to analyze the regulation by testosterone. We investigated the in vivo effect of testosterone on alphaENaC in a rat model and used the mouse collecting duct cell line M-1 for transepithelial electrophysiological measurements. The androgen receptor (AR) was expressed in male kidney and HKC-8 cells. AlphaENaC mRNA expression increased 2- to 3-fold after treatment with testosterone in HKC-8 cells. The induction by testosterone was completely blocked by adding the AR antagonist flutamide. Analysis of the alphaENaC promoter sequence identified a putative AR response element (ARE) located 140 nucleotides upstream from the transcription start site. HKC-8 cell transfection studies showed that testosterone directly upregulated gene expression via this ARE. In vivo, testosterone treatment of orchiectomized rats resulted in an increased renal alphaENaC mRNA expression. In testosterone-treated mouse M-1 cells, amiloride caused a significant stronger decrease in short circuit current than in control cells. These data show that alphaENaC expression is directly regulated by androgens in vitro and in vivo and highlight a potential mechanism explaining the reported gender differences in blood pressure.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2005 Nov;289(5):F941-8.
Testosterone supplementation in aging men and women: possible impact on cardiovascular-renal disease.
Reckelhoff JF, Yanes LL, Iliescu R, Fortepiani LA, Granger JP.
Dept. of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216-4505, USA.
Treatment of aging men and women with testosterone supplements is increasing. The supplements are given to postmenopausal women mainly to improve their libido and to aging men to improve muscle mass and bone strength, to improve libido and quality of life, to prevent and treat osteoporosis, and, with the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, such as sildenafil, to treat erectile dysfunction. The increased use of testosterone supplements in aging individuals has occurred despite the fact that there have been no rigorous clinical trials examining the effects of chronic testosterone on the cardiovascular-renal disease risk. Studies in humans and animals have suggested that androgens can increase blood pressure and compromise renal function. Androgens have been shown to increase tubular sodium and water reabsorption and activate various vasoconstrictor systems in the kidney, such as the renin-angiotensin system and endothelin. There is also evidence that androgens may increase oxidative stress. Furthermore, the kidney contains the enzymes necessary to produce androgens de novo. This review presents an overview of the data from human and animal studies in which the role of androgens in promoting renal and cardiovascular diseases has been investigated.
Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2007 Jan;16(1):16-21.
Gonadal steroids, salt-sensitivity and renal function.
Pechere-Bertschi A, Burnier M.
Medical Policlinic and Service of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Nutrition, University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland. antoinette
Cardiovasc Res. 2006 Dec 1;72(3):456-63.
Androgens potentiate renal vascular responses to angiotensin II via amplification of the Rho kinase signaling pathway.
Song J, Kost CK Jr, Martin DS.
Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA.
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed whether the Rho kinase signaling pathway contributes to androgenic amplification of angiotensin II (Ang II) induced pressor and renal constrictor responses. METHODS: Mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to angiotensin II receptor 1 (AT1) inhibition were measured in conscious male New Zealand genetically hypertensive rats (NZGH) subjected to sham operation, castration or castration+testosterone replacement. MAP and renal vascular resistance (RVR) responses to Ang II were recorded with and without a Rho kinase inhibitor, fasudil, in anesthetized NZGH. Western blot was used to analyze target protein expression in the kidney. RESULTS: MAP responses to AT1 receptor inhibition and exogenous Ang II were attenuated in castrated NZGH. The increase in RVR (mm Hg/ml/min/g kidney) at the maximum dose of Ang II was significantly lower in castrated NZGH than in sham operated NZGH. Testosterone replacement restored RVR responses to Ang II in castrated rats. Fasudil treatment reduced both MAP and RVR responses to Ang II in each group. In addition, the differential MAP and RVR responses to Ang II amongst the three groups were significantly attenuated by Rho kinase inhibition. Western blot showed that Rho kinase protein expression was reduced by castration, while testosterone replacement restored the Rho kinase protein levels in castrated rats. The phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1), a downstream target of Rho kinase, was also increased by androgens. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these results indicate that androgens potentiate Ang II-induced renal vascular responses, an effect mediated at least partly via up-regulation of the Rho kinase signaling pathway.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006 Jun;290(6):R1608-15.
Androgens augment renal vascular responses to ANG II in New Zealand genetically hypertensive rats.
Song J, Kost CK Jr, Martin DS.
Basic Biomedical Sciences, University of South Dakota, Vermillion SD 57069, USA.
Males develop higher blood pressure than do females. This study tested the hypothesis that androgens enhance responsiveness to ANG II during the development of hypertension in New Zealand genetically hypertensive (NZGH) rats. Male NZGH rats were obtained at 5 wk of age and subjected to sham operation (Sham) or castration (Cas) then studied at three age groups: 6-7, 11-12, and 16-17 wk. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and renal blood flow (RBF) measurements were recorded under Inactin anesthesia. These variables were measured after enalapril (1 mg/kg) treatment and during intravenous ANG II infusion (20, 40, and 80 ng/kg/min). Plasma testosterone was measured by ELISA. Angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor expression was assessed by Western blot analysis and RT-PCR. ANG II-induced MAP responses were significantly attenuated in Cas NZGH rats. At the highest ANG II dose, MAP increased by 40+/-4% in Sham vs. 22+/-1% in Cas NZGH rats of 16-17 wk of age. Similarly, renal vascular resistance (RVR) responses to ANG II were reduced by castration (209+/-20% in Sham vs. 168+/-10% in Cas NZGH rats at 16-17 wk of age). Castration also reduced MAP recorded in conscious NZGH rats of this age group. Testosterone replacement restored baseline MAP and the pressor and RVR responses to ANG II. Castration reduced testosterone concentrations markedly. Testosterone treatment restored these concentrations. Neither castration nor castration+testosterone treatment affected AT1 receptor mRNA or protein expression. Collectively, these data suggest that androgens modulate renal and systemic vascular responsiveness to ANG II, which may contribute to androgen-induced facilitation of NZGH rat hypertension.
I find that the combination of 50mg Inspra (Eplerenone) on the morning along with 40mg/12.5mg of Micardis Plus (Telmisartan/Hydrochlorothiazide) on the evening, works wonders.
I've always been plagued with excessive water retention even at low BF levels but now with this combo the results are nothing sort of amazing...