CRH and Acne.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 May 14;99(10):7148-53.
Corticotropin-releasing hormone: an autocrine hormone that promotes lipogenesis in human sebocytes.
Zouboulis CC, Seltmann H, Hiroi N, Chen W, Young M, Oeff M, Scherbaum WA, Orfanos CE, McCann SM, Bornstein SR.
Department of Dermatology, University Medical Center Benjamin Franklin, The Free University of Berlin, 14195 Berlin, Germany.
Sebaceous glands may be involved in a pathway conceptually similar to that of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Such a pathway has been described and may occur in human skin and lately in the sebaceous glands because they express neuropeptide receptors. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is the most proximal element of the HPA axis, and it acts as central coordinator for neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stress. To further examine the probability of an HPA equivalent pathway, we investigated the expression of CRH, CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP), and CRH receptors (CRH-R) in SZ95 sebocytes in vitro and their regulation by CRH and several other hormones. CRH, CRH-BP, CRH-R1, and CRH-R2 were detectable in SZ95 sebocytes at the mRNA and protein levels: CRH-R1 was the predominant type (CRH-R1/CRH-R2 = 2). CRH was biologically active on human sebocytes: it induced biphasic increase in synthesis of sebaceous lipids with a maximum stimulation at 10(-7) M and up-regulated mRNA levels of 3 beta- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta(5-4) isomerase, although it did not affect cell viability, cell proliferation, or IL-1 beta-induced IL-8 release. CRH, dehydroepiandrosterone, and 17 beta-estradiol did not modulate CRH-R expression, whereas Testosterone at 10(-7) M down-regulated CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 mRNA expression at 6 to 24 h, and growth hormone (GH) switched CRH-R1 mRNA expression to CRH-R2 at 24 h. Based on these findings, CRH may be an autocrine hormone for human sebocytes that exerts homeostatic lipogenic activity, whereas testosterone and growth hormone induce CRH negative feedback. The findings implicate CRH in the clinical development of acne, seborrhea, androgenetic alopecia, skin aging, xerosis, and other skin disorders associated with alterations in lipid formation of sebaceous origin.
acne is worst post cycle.
CRH rebound after cycle.
Horm Metab Res. 2007 Feb;39(2):166-70.
Corticotropin-releasing hormone skin signaling is receptor-mediated and is predominant in the sebaceous glands.
Krause K, Schnitger A, Fimmel S, Glass E, Zouboulis CC.
Department of Dermatology, Charité Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany.
There is increasing evidence that the sebaceous gland expresses receptors for several neuropeptides and is involved in responses to stress. Among them, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) was currently found to be produced also in the skin. In this study, the distribution of CRH, CRH receptors 1 and 2 (CRH-R1 and CRH-R2), and CRH binding protein (CRH-BP) in cultured human (SZ95) sebocytes was further characterized. Moreover, the effects of CRH and CRH-like peptides on proliferation and inflammatory signaling of CRH receptor-expressing SZ95 sebocytes IN VITRO were investigated. Urocortin (Uct), urotensin and sauvagine are recently described members of the family of structurally related CRH-like peptides, whereas Uct shares a 45% homology with CRH. CRH and Uct inhibited SZ95 sebocyte proliferation with CRH also stimulating interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) release from SZ95 sebocytes. However, CRH had no effect on interleukin-1alpha and interleukin-1beta production in these cells. alpha-Helical-CRF, a CRH antagonistic peptide, annulled the CRH effect on SZ95 sebocyte proliferation and interleukin secretion, while the non-peptidic CRH-R1 selective antagonist antalarmin inhibited the increased production of neutral lipids caused by CRH. In conclusion, CRH, and to a lesser extent Uct, may be involved in signaling of stress pathophysiology in the skin. However, further investigations into the downstream effects of CRH and Uct are required to elucidate the mechanism by which these neuropeptides could establish a stress-related pathophysiological condition in the skin.